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The highest crossover rates noticed in pets and you may herbs

The highest crossover rates noticed in pets and you may herbs

A minimal NCO gene conversion rate

You to domain name stands out flirt mobile because good recombinational wilderness. No CO otherwise gene conversion experience is actually seen from inside the an approximately eight hundred kb area close the 2 connected intercourse devotion genes, csd and you may fem (More file 1: Shape S14). I suggest that, because the heterozygosity from csd establishes new intercourse off honeybee [56,57] and you can diploid homozygotes try sterile males, gene sales inside domain name might possibly be disadvantageous. As the gene conversion process are associated one another having CO and NCO situations, the recombination are abolished to prevent homogenization. An absence of recombination including pushes both loci to do something once the just one haplotype.

All of our impact stands when you look at the striking compare so you can an early on declare that receive very higher CO pricing near new csd locus. A possible resolution of inconsistent claims is that while in the brand new immediate location of the family genes there’s no recombination, that is counterbalanced from the oddly highest costs in the covers proximal to the desert. A lower quality study manage position the greater cost from the covers. In keeping with it we to see a top top out of recombination in the the fresh instantaneous vicinity of the plateau (More file step 1: Figure S14).


Our very own research increase the perception one personal hymenoptera possess each other highest and you can very changeable crossing-over pricing. Indeed, the speed varied ranging from 0 and you may 197 cM/Mb whenever mentioned for the low-overlapping 2 hundred kb window across chromosomes (Profile 3, Contour S8 when you look at the Even more file 1 and you may Desk S6 for the Most document 2), suggesting brand new highly bumpy distribution from crossovers on genome. The fresh figure of 37 cM/Mb, if you’re higher to possess dogs, has been below one to viewed for the majority of fungi and protozoans, where rates over sixty cM/Mb is actually advertised . Into the better of all of our education, the latest guess ways a higher crossing-more price than just present in people plant or animal.

While our study finds evidence consistent with several theoretical predictions, cause and effect are always hard to disentangle from correlation alone. For example, in principle the diversity/crossing-over coupling is also consistent with the notion that crossing over occurs preferentially in domains of high diversity and with the notion that crossing over is mutagenic . Similarly, the correlation between recombination rate and GC content is consistent with both the possibility that crossing over forces a high GC content and with the possibility that a high GC content favors increased crossing over. The conventional wisdom holds that recombination forces heteroduplexes within which mismatches require resolution. If this resolution is biased towards G and C residues (biased gene conversion), then a correlation between GC and recombination rate is expected . Previous analyses in honey bee have demonstrated fixation biases toward GC in high recombination parts of the genome . Evidence to support this direction for the causal arrow requires SNP analysis showing a bias to AT- > GC SNPs being fixed (or otherwise favored) compared to GC- > AT SNPs at sites of recombination. The key events here are most probably crossover-associated gene conversion events, but for these we cannot determine the direction of conversion and we are likely to be missing the majority of them. In our identified NCO events, if u is the number of AT > GC SNPs per A or T and v is the number of GC > AT SNPs per G or C, then the ratio of u/v is 1.06, which is slightly greater than the null (from stochastic simulations with 10,000 repeats: P <0.08). Being on the edge of significance, we cannot robustly say that NCO is or is not associated with GC-biased gene conversion.

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